In order for pregnancy to occur an egg has to be released from the ovary and unite with a sperm. Normally this union is called fertilization and it occurs within the fallopian tube, which joins the uterus to the ovary. Sometimes this process does not take place naturally and is called infertility.
In Vitro Fertilization(IVF) treatment is rather complex and involves multiple steps, a variety of medications and procedures. Several kinds of assistance are essential for the infertile people to have children. IVF is one of the methods that help the infertile persons to become parents. Those who are undergoing IVF have problems with fallopian tubes, age, endometriosis, impaired sperm production, ovulation disorders etc.
IVF procedure consists of :
- A controlled ovarian stimulation with drugs to produce many eggs
- Monitoring of follicles and egg development with the aid of vaginal sonography and serial estradiol hormone estimation
- Administration of HCG injection
- Oocyte or egg retrieval under short general anaesthesia, 35 to 37 hours after HCG injection
- Identification and isolation of eggs in the laboratory
- Sperm collection and processing in the laboratory
- Fertilization of egg with the sperm
- Embryo formation 2 to 5 days after fertilization
- Embryo transfer of good quality embryos back to the womb after 2, 3 or 5 days after egg removal.
Factors Affecting the Treatment
Maternal age, embryo quality, previous pregnancy, type of fertility problem, use of donor eggs, stimulation protocol and timing of ovulation, receptivity of endometrium, embryo transfer, sperm factors and lifestyle habits are the various factors affecting the success of IVF.